培根散文第18章：Of Travel 论游历
18 of travel 论游历
travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of experience. he that travelleth into a country, before he hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. that young men travel under some tutor, or grave servant, i allow well; so that he be such a one, that hath the language, and hath been in the country before; whereby he may be able to tell them, what things are worthy to be seen in the country where they go; what acquaintances they are to seek; what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth.
for else young men shall go hooded, and look abroad little. it is a strange thing, that in sea voyages, where there is nothing to be seen but sky and sea, men should make diaries; but in land-travel, wherein so much is to be obscured, for the most part, they omit it; as if chance were fitter to be registered than observation. let diaries, therefore, be brought in use. the things to be seen and observed are: the courts of princes, specially when they give audience to ambassadors: the courts of justice, while they sit and hear causes; and so of consistories ecclesiastics: the churches, and monasteries, with the monuments which are therein extant: the walls and fortifications of cities and towns; and so the havens and harbours: antiquities, and ruins: libraries; colleges, disputations, and lectures, where any are: shipping and navies: houses, and gardens of state and pleasure, near great cities: armories: arsenals: magazines: exchanges: bourses; warehouses: exercises of horsemanship; fencing; training of soldiers; and the like: comedies; such whereunto the better sort of persons do resort; treasuries of jewels, and robes; cabinets, and rarities: and to conclude, whatsoever is memorable in the places where they go. after all which, the tutors or servants ought to make diligent enquiry. as for triumphs; masques; feasts; weddings; funerals; capital executions; and such shows; men need not to be put in mind of them; yet are they not to be neglected.
if you will have a young man, to put his travel into a little room, and in short time, to gather much, this you must do. first, as was said, he must have some entrance into the language, before he goeth. then he must have such a servant, or tutor, as knoweth the country, as was likewise said. let him carry with him also some card or book describing the country, where he travelleth; which will be a good key to his enquiry. let him keep also a diary. let him not stay long in one city, or town; more or less as the place deserveth, but not long: nay, when he stayeth in one city or town, let him change his lodging, from one end and part of the town to another, which is a great adamant of acquaintance. let him sequester himself from the company of his countrymen, and diet in such places, where mere is good company of the nation where he travelleth. let him upon his removes, from one place to another, procure recommendation to some person of quality, residing in the place whither he removeth; that he may use his favour in those things he desireth to see or know.
thus he may abridge his travel, with much profit as for the acquaintance, which is to be sought in travel; that which is most of all profitable, is acquaintance with the secretaries and employed men of ambassadors; for so in travelling in one country he shall suck the experience of many. let him also see and visit imminent persons, in all kinds, which are of great fame abroad; that he may be able to tell, how the life agreeth with the same. for quarrels, they are with care and discretion to be avoided: they are, commonly, for mistresses; healths; place; and words.