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培根散文第18章:Of Travel 论游历

时间: 02-18     手机版

18 of travel 论游历

travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of experience. he that travelleth into a country, before he hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. that young men travel under some tutor, or grave servant, i allow well; so that he be such a one, that hath the language, and hath been in the country before; whereby he may be able to tell them, what things are worthy to be seen in the country where they go; what acquaintances they are to seek; what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth.
游历在年轻人是教育底一部分;在年长的人是经验底一部分。还未学会一点某国底语言而即往某国游历者可说是去上学,而不是去游历。少年人应当随着导师或带着可靠的从者去游历,愚亦赞成;只要那导师或从者是一个懂得所去的国中底语言,并且曾经到过那里的就是了;因为如此他就可以告诉那同去的少年在所去的那个国家里何者当看,何人当识,并有何种的阅历训练可得也。

for else young men shall go hooded, and look abroad little. it is a strange thing, that in sea voyages, where there is nothing to be seen but sky and sea, men should make diaries; but in land-travel, wherein so much is to be obscured, for the most part, they omit it; as if chance were fitter to be registered than observation. let diaries, therefore, be brought in use. the things to be seen and observed are: the courts of princes, specially when they give audience to ambassadors: the courts of justice, while they sit and hear causes; and so of consistories ecclesiastics: the churches, and monasteries, with the monuments which are therein extant: the walls and fortifications of cities and towns; and so the havens and harbours: antiquities, and ruins: libraries; colleges, disputations, and lectures, where any are: shipping and navies: houses, and gardens of state and pleasure, near great cities: armories: arsenals: magazines: exchanges: bourses; warehouses: exercises of horsemanship; fencing; training of soldiers; and the like: comedies; such whereunto the better sort of persons do resort; treasuries of jewels, and robes; cabinets, and rarities: and to conclude, whatsoever is memorable in the places where they go. after all which, the tutors or servants ought to make diligent enquiry. as for triumphs; masques; feasts; weddings; funerals; capital executions; and such shows; men need not to be put in mind of them; yet are they not to be neglected.
如不然者,少年人去到外国将如鹰隼之戴着头巾,不会怎样往外面看也。在航海的时候,除了天和海以外,别无什么可看的,然而人们却常写日记;在陆地上旅行的时候,可观察者甚多,而人们却常省略写日记之举;好象偶见的事物比专心去观察的事物反倒较为值得记载似的,这是很奇怪的。所以日记是应当记的。在游历中应当观览考察的事物是:君主底朝廷,尤其是当他们接见外国使臣的时候;法庭,当他们开庭问案的时候;还有宗教法院;教堂及僧院,和其中遗留的纪念品;城市底墙垣与堡垒;商埠与港湾;古物与遗迹;图书馆;学院,辩论会,演讲,(如果有的话);航业与海军;大城附近的壮丽的建筑与花园,武库;兵工厂;国家仓库;交易所;堆栈;马术训练;剑术;军操,以及此类的事物;上流人士所去的戏院;珠玉衣服之珍藏;木器与珍玩;并且,最后,任何当地值得记忆的事物。关于这一切那做导师或仆人的人们是应当仔细访问的;至于那些盛典、宫剧、宴会、婚礼、出殡、杀人以及类此的景象,是无须乎令人记忆的;然而也不可把它们忽略了。

if you will have a young man, to put his travel into a little room, and in short time, to gather much, this you must do. first, as was said, he must have some entrance into the language, before he goeth. then he must have such a servant, or tutor, as knoweth the country, as was likewise said. let him carry with him also some card or book describing the country, where he travelleth; which will be a good key to his enquiry. let him keep also a diary. let him not stay long in one city, or town; more or less as the place deserveth, but not long: nay, when he stayeth in one city or town, let him change his lodging, from one end and part of the town to another, which is a great adamant of acquaintance. let him sequester himself from the company of his countrymen, and diet in such places, where mere is good company of the nation where he travelleth. let him upon his removes, from one place to another, procure recommendation to some person of quality, residing in the place whither he removeth; that he may use his favour in those things he desireth to see or know.
如果你要一个年轻人把他底游历限于一个小的地域,并且要他在短时间内得到许多知识的话,他就一定非如此做不可。第一,如上所述,在他去的以前他一定要稍会所去的国中底语言。又如上述,他也得有一个熟习那个国家底情形的仆从或导师。他也得随身带上些描述他所要去的国家的地图或书籍;这些书籍对于他底访问观察将为一种良好的引导。他也应当记日记。他在一个城或镇中不可住的过久;他居留期间之长短应当合乎那地方底价值,但是不可过长。不但如此,当他住在一个城市中的时候,他应当把住所由城市底一端或一部分迁移到另外的一端或一部分;这样就大可以吸引许多相识了。他应当和他底本国人分开,不要常常来往,并且在那可以遇见所在国中底上流人士的地方吃饭。在他从一处迁往别处的时候,他应当设法得到介绍,可以往见所去的地方底名人,为的是这人可以在他所想见到或了解的事物上替他帮忙。

thus he may abridge his travel, with much profit as for the acquaintance, which is to be sought in travel; that which is most of all profitable, is acquaintance with the secretaries and employed men of ambassadors; for so in travelling in one country he shall suck the experience of many. let him also see and visit imminent persons, in all kinds, which are of great fame abroad; that he may be able to tell, how the life agreeth with the same. for quarrels, they are with care and discretion to be avoided: they are, commonly, for mistresses; healths; place; and words.
如此他就可以缩短他底游历底期间而同时获得不少的益处了。至于说到在游历中应当寻求的友谊,那最有益处的就是和各国使节底书记或私人秘书的交际,如此,一个人虽在一国中游历却可以吸收关于许多国家的知识也。这个游历的人也应当去见各界中在国外有大名的名流或巨子;为的是也许他可以看出来这些人底真正为人与他们底声名有多少相符之处。至于争斗,那是务须谨慎避免的。争斗底原因普通多是为情人、饮祝、座次以及言语的。

 

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