培根散文第24章：Of Innovations 论变更
24 of innovations 论变更
as the births of living creatures, at first, are ill shapen: so are all innovations, which are the births of time. yet notwithstanding, as those that first bring honour into their family, are commonly more worthy, than most that succeed: so the first precedent (if it be good) is seldom attained by mutation.
for ill, to man's nature, as it stands perverted, hath a natural motion, strongest in continuance: but good, as a forced motion, strongest at first surely every medicine is an innovation; and he that will not apply new remedies, must expect new evils: for time is the greatest innovator: and if time, of course, alter things to the worse, and wisdom and counsel shall not alter them to the better, what shall be the end? it is true, that what is settled by custom, though it be not good, yet at least it is fit and those things, which have long gone together, are as it were confederate within themselves: whereas new things piece not so well; but though they help by their utility, yet they trouble by their inconformity. besides, they are like strangers; more admired, and less favoured.
all this is true, if time stood still; which contrariwise moveth so round, that a froward retention of custom is as turbulent a thing as an innovation:and they that reverence too much old times, are but a scorn to the new. it were good therefore, that men in their innovations, would follow the example of time itself; which indeed innovated greatly, but quietly, and by degrees, scarce to be perceived: for otherwise, whatsoever is new, is unlocked for; and ever it mends some, and pairs other: and he that is holpen, takes it for a fortune, and thanks the time; and he that is hurt, for a wrong, and imputeth it to the author. it is good also, not to try experiments in states, except me necessity be urgent, or the utility evident: and well to beware, that it be the reformation, that draweth on the change; and not the desire of change, that pretendeth the reformation. and lastly, that the novelty, though it be not rejected, yet be held for a suspect: and, as the scripture saith; that we make a stand upon the ancient way, and then look about us, and discover what is the straight and right way, and so to walk in it.